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We investigated the molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in community settings and in hospitals in Antananarivo, Madagascar.
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We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine the efficacy of postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis in healthy young women prone to recurrent urinary tract infections. Sixteen patients were randomized to receive postcoital administration of a combination product of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, while 11 received postcoital placebo. The treatment groups were similar with respect to age, parity, diaphragm use, history of lifetime urinary tract infections, frequency of intercourse, and number of lifetime sexual partners. In over 6 months of observation, postcoital administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was highly effective in preventing recurrent urinary tract infections. Nine of 11 patients who took the placebo developed urinary tract infections (infection rate, 3.6 per patient-year), compared with only two of 16 patients who received postcoital trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (infection rate, 0.3 per patient-year). Postcoital administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was effective in patients with both low (two or fewer times per week) and high (three or more times per week) intercourse frequencies. Side effects were few and compliance was excellent. We conclude that postcoital trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a safe, effective, and inexpensive approach to management of recurrent urinary tract infections in young women.
The optimal time to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculous meningitis is unknown.
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The objective was to determine whether the routine packing of simple cutaneous abscesses after incision and drainage (I&D) confers any benefit over I&D alone.
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From June 1985 to September 1987, 202 adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded study comparing ciprofloxacin (500 mg) with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (160 mg/800 mg) or placebo for adults with acute diarrhea. All patients were treated on the day of presentation and received medication on a twice-daily schedule (every 12 hours) for 5 days. Bacterial isolates from these patients included 35 Campylobacter, 18 Shigella, and 15 Salmonella. Treatment at the time of presentation with ciprofloxacin compared with placebo shortened the duration of diarrhea (2.4 vs 3.4 days), and increased the percentage of patients cured or improved by treatment days 1, 3, 4, and 5. Similar significant differences for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim compared with placebo were not seen.
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All human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who had a history of allergic reactions (eg, rash) to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and who required sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim prophylaxis.
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In case of idiopathic anterior scleritis or scleritis associated with autoimmune diseases, immunosuppressive treatment is often required. We report on six patients with anterior idiopathic scleritis non sensitive to local treatment where cotrimoxazole improved or cured the symptoms.
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A total of 246 bacteraemia episodes (including multiple episodes) were documented among 188 individuals (crude incidence: 42.4 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI: 35.0, 51.4). The most common species isolated was Streptococcus pneumoniae. After adjustment for current age, clinical characteristics at enrollment (CD4+ T-cell counts and WHO stage) and time since enrollment, the incidence of bacteraemia dropped significantly when HAART was widely available compared with the period when treatment was not available (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.35). No poor health outcomes (death or lack of clinical response to antibiotics) after bacteraemia occurred after complete access to HAART.
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Median disease duration was 5.4 years (range 0.9-25 years). All sixteen patients were initially treated with cyclosporine at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day. Nine patients were started on oral azathioprine (median dose 1.8 mg/kg). Seven patients underwent surgery (panproctocolectomy), although none had surgery after 6 months. Comparisons were made between patients with <7 days and >7 days intravenous steroid. Other parameters analysed were stool frequency at 3 days and CRP at 3 days. There were no significant differences between these groups. Median bowel frequency at day 3 was higher in patients who finally underwent surgery. At 3 years follow-up, 56% of the sixteen patients had avoided surgery by using azathioprine immunosuppression.
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Dispensing doctors (DDs) have been found to prescribe significantly more drugs, more injections and more antibiotics per patient than non-dispensing doctors (NDDs). However, the rationality of prescription in relation to diagnoses and symptoms has not been studied.