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Patient adherence to therapeutic regimens is extremely important to successful treatment of acute otitis media. Among pediatric patients medication palatability, particularly that of oral suspensions, is essential for patient acceptance, therapeutic compliance and successful outcome.
Uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections (uSSSIs) are common community-acquired infections which are often caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, although other pathogens are often involved. A recent treatment algorithm has recommended the use of cephalosporins as an appropriate antibiotic therapy for uSSSIs and, in particular, highlighted cefdinir as an extended-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin with good antimicrobial activity and favourable tolerability. This case report briefly reviews the rationale for the use of cefdinir in the treatment of uSSSIs and presents two case studies to highlight the clinical use of this agent.
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This pooled analysis compared the clinical cure and bacterial eradication rates achieved by cefdinir and penicillin in the treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharngotonsillitis.
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The rate of AOM encounters at which no antibiotic-prescribing was reported did not change after guideline publication (11%-16%; P = .103). Independent predictors of an encounter at which no antibiotic-prescribing was reported were the absence of ear pain, absence of reported fever, and receipt of an analgesic prescription. After guideline publication, the rate of amoxicillin-prescribing increased (40%-49%; P = .039), the rate of amoxicillin/clavulanate-prescribing decreased (23%-16%; P = .043), the rate of cefdinir-prescribing increased (7%-14%; P = .004), and the rate of analgesic-prescribing increased (14%-24%; P = .038).
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Amoxicillin/clavulanate was the product to which the greatest percentage of susceptible, intermediate, and resistant strains of pneumococci were sensitive at the PK/PD breakpoint, followed by cefditoren, cefpodoxime, cefuroxime, cefdinir, and cefprozil. None of the cephalosporins were active against penicillin-resistant pneumococci. Cefditoren and cefpodozime were the agents to which the greatest percentage of beta-lactamase-positive and beta-lactamase-negative strains of H influenzae were sensitive, followed by amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, and cefuroxime. Cefprozil was inactive against H influenzae. All of the beta-lactam products were active against M catarrhalis. All but cefpodoxime, cefditoren, and cefixime were active against MSSA.
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In this retrospective study (2003-2004), the authors compared the susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens to cefdinir and selected antibiotics in children who were evaluated for urinary tract infections in an urban tertiary academic pediatric emergency department. Pathogens (community acquired vs. opportunistic or nosocomial) were categorized as susceptible, indeterminate, or resistant on the basis of antibiotic susceptibility breakpoints. The frequency of these categorizations for individual drugs was determined.
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Of 150 clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae recovered in 2001, we examined 55 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae for which cefixime MICs were > or=0.125 microg/ml and randomly selected 15 isolates for which cefixime MICs were < or =0.06 microg/ml for analysis of alterations in the penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) gene. We found insertion of an extra codon (Asp-345a) in the transpeptidase domain of PBP 2, and this insertion occurred alone or in conjunction with other amino acid substitutions. We also found a mosaic PBP 2 that was composed of fragments of the PBP 2 proteins from Neisseria cinera and Neisseria perflava. This mosaic PBP 2 was significantly associated with decreased susceptibilities to penicillin and cephalosporins, especially oral cephalosporins. For most of the isolates with a mosaic PBP 2, the cefixime MICs were > or =0.5 microg/ml and the cefdinir MICs were > or =1 microg/ml. Analysis of chromosomal DNA restriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that most isolates with the mosaic PBP 2 were genetically similar. The recombination events that generated the mosaic PBP 2 would likely have contributed to the decreased sensitivities to cephalosporins. Isolates with the mosaic PBP 2 appear to threaten the efficacy of the currently recommended regimen with cefixime. The emergence of such strains may be the result of the in vivo generation of clones in which interspecies recombination occurred between the penA genes of N. gonorrhoeae and commensal Neisseria species.
A 10-day regimen of cefdinir 14 mg/kg QD or 7 mg/kg BID was as clinically effective overall as a 10-day regimen of amoxicillin/ clavulanate 40/10 mg/kg/day divided TID in the treatment of tympanocentesis-confirmed, nonrefractory AOM in children. These data suggest that cefdinir QD may be a better alternative than cefdinir BID for refractory AOM. Both dosing regimens of cefdinir were associated with significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse reactions than was amoxicillin/clavulanate.
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Of 447 children enrolled, 230 were clinically and bacteriologically evaluable (74% 2 years old or younger; 57% treated for AOM in previous 3 months). Bacteriologic eradication, based on repeat tympanocentesis on days 4-6, was achieved in 74% (170 of 230) of children; 76% (201 of 266) of AOM pathogens were eradicated. Eradication of penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae was 91% (50 of 55), 67% (18 of 27) and 43% (10 of 23), respectively (P < 0.001); eradication of H. influenzae was 72% (90 of 125). Overall clinical response at days 12-14 was 83% (76 and 82% for children with S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, respectively). Sustained clinical response at days 25-28 was 85%. Clinical response was 83% for culture-positive children versus 96% for culture-negative children at baseline tympanocentesis (P < 0.001).