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Although consensus exists relating criteria for the identification of low-risk patients with febrile neutropenia, no clear indication on how to manage these patients has been so far provided particularly in outpatients affected by hematologic malignancies. The feasibility and safety of early discharge was prospectively evaluated in 100 outpatients with hematologic malignancies and febrile neutropenia. A strategy considering the risk-index of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) was applied. High-risk patients were entirely managed at hospital. Low-risk patients were early discharged if they were afebrile since 48 h and not on supportive therapy requiring hospitalization. Out of 90 low-risk episodes, in 69 instances (76.7%), patients were discharged after a median of 4 days and continued home therapy with oral cefixime (78%) or other antibiotics. Only five outpatients (7.2%) had fever recurrence. Twenty-one low-risk patients were not early discharged due to worsening conditions (three deaths), need of multiple daily dose therapy, or discharge refuse. No clinical characteristic was able to predict the eligibility for early discharge. The MASCC risk-index is a useful aid in the identification of high-risk febrile neutropenia needing whole in-hospital treatment. As for low-risk patients, hospitalization at least in the first days of fever is required. Cefixime could be included among the oral antibacterial drugs to be used in the outpatient treatment of adult patients with febrile neutropenia.
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The pharmacokinetic parameters of cefixime were determined in healthy volunteers following oral administration of 200 mg cefixime as tablet, syrup and dry suspension, respectively. All three galenic formulations showed reliable absorption. Mean peak plasma concentrations amounted to 2.4-3.4 mg/l and were reached after 3.3-3.5 h. Mean terminal half-lives were 2.9-3.1 h. The mean areas under the plasma concentration-time curves ranged between 18 and 26 mg/l.h; 18-24% of the dose administered were recovered unchanged in the urine. The best bioavailability was obtained with the dry suspension followed by the tablet and the syrup. With respect to the ester pro-drug cephalosporins, cefuroxime axetil, cefetamet pivoxyl and cefotiam hexetil, cefixime exhibits higher plasma half-life and area under the curve as well as, comparable absolute bioavailability but consistently lower urinary recovery which indicates higher non-renal clearance.
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A total of 5034 gonococcal isolates were tested from 2009 to 2011. Isolates exhibiting resistance to cefixime (MIC > 0.125 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (MIC > 0.5 mg/L) were significantly associated with infection in heterosexuals (males only for ciprofloxacin), older patients (>25 years of age), or those without a concurrent chlamydial infection in the multivariable analysis. The geometric mean of cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs decreased from 2009 to 2011, most significantly for men who have sex with men, and isolates from male heterosexuals exhibited the highest MICs in 2011.
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We undertook to identify the antimicrobial susceptibility of the pathogens isolated from patients with otitis media or maxillary sinusitis who failed to respond to antimicrobial therapy, and correlate it with previous antimicrobial therapy and smoking. We analyzed isolates recovered from 2 consecutive cultures obtained from middle ear aspirate obtained through an open perforation in 22 children with otitis, and maxillary sinus aspirate collected by endoscopy from 20 patients. Forty-seven isolates were repeatedly recovered from 42 culture-positive individuals. The organisms isolated were Streptococcus pneumoniae (15 isolates), Haemophilus influenzae (14), Staphylococcus aureus (7), Moraxella catarrhalis (6), and Streptococcus pyogenes (5). Resistance of at least 2 tube dilutions to the antimicrobial agents used was found in 23 of the 47 (49%) isolates that were found in 20 (48%) of the patients. These included 10 of 15 (67%) isolates of S pneumoniae, 4 of 14 (29%) H influenzae (all were beta-lactamase producers), 4 of 7 (57%) S aureus (all beta-lactamase producers), 5 of 6 (83%) M catarrhalis (all beta-lactamase producers), and none of 5 S pyogenes. In the 21 patients who failed to respond to amoxicillin, H influenzae and S pneumoniae predominated. Streptococcus pneumoniae was recovered from 4 of the 11 (36%) after trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 4 of 21 (19%) after amoxicillin, 2 of 3 (67%) after azithromycin dihydrate, and 1 of 4 (25%) after cefixime. A statistically significant higher recovery of resistant organisms was noted in those treated 2 to 6 months previously, and in those with sinusitis who smoked. The data illustrate the relationship between resistance to antimicrobials and failure of patients with otitis media and sinusitis to improve.
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Failure of uncomplicated gonococcal infections acquired in the Far East to respond to doses of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been identified in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In the Republic of the Philippines, 54.3% of strains exhibited decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones; 12% of strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. This study was undertaken to compare the antimicrobial susceptibilities of gonococcal isolates in Bangkok, Thailand, with those in the Republic of the Philippines.
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Although the recommended standard course of therapy for shigellosis is 5 days of oral ampicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy, successful outcome has been reported in adults treated with abbreviated courses of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to compare short course (2-day) vs. 5-day therapy with cefixime for treatment of diarrheal disease caused by Shigella sonnei in children.
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.
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Out of 220 food handlers, 209 consented to participate, and among them, 19 (9.1%) were positive for S. enterica serovars. Serotyping of these isolates showed that 9 (4.3%) were typhoidal S. serovars while 10 (4.7%) were non-typhoidal S. serovars. Of the typhoidal S. serovars, 7 were S. enterica serovar Typhi and 1 each of S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A and B. The resistance pattern of these isolates showed that 77.7% were resistant to ampicillin and 11.1% to cotrimoxazole. All typhoidal S. enterica serovar isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, cefixime, nalidixic acid, and ofloxacin.
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The therapeutic choices available in Kyrghyzstan appear to be limited to cephalosporins and spectinomycin.
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By the end of 24 months in 3Mixtatin group, 31 (96.8%) teeth revealed no clinical signs or symptoms with arrested resorption progress in radiographs. In MTA group, clinical signs and symptoms including pain, mobility and sinus tract were observed in 18 (48.6%) teeth with cessation of root/interradicular radiolucency in 7 (18.9%) teeth without bone repair.