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We have evaluated the susceptibility of 199 pathogens isolated in pure culture from consecutive urine samples submitted from the community. Rates of susceptibility for all organisms were ampicillin, 48%; amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, 88%; cephalothin, 57%; cefuroxime axetil, 74%; nalidixic acid, 85%; ciprofloxacin, 99%; nitrofurantoin, 78%; and trimethoprim, 67%. Ciprofloxacin resistance and production of extended spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes were detected in Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients in the community.
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Six hundred thirty-six adults with CAP requiring hospitalization and initial IV antibiotic treatment.
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Linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare autoimmune blistering disorder. The disease may be either idiopathic or druginduced. Over the past 30 years, approximately one hundred LABD cases have been described as induced by a wide range of drugs, chiefly antibiotics.
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Enoxacin is a 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent with good in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and most Gram-negative urinary tract pathogens. It is less active in vitro against Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and most Gram-positive bacteria, than against Gram-negative organisms. Enoxacin is rapidly absorbed, with a high oral bioavailability (87 to 91%). Of the absorbed dose, 44 to 56% is excreted unchanged in the urine, with peak urinary concentrations (>500 mg/L within 4 hours) remaining high (>100 mg/L) for up to 24 hours, sufficient to inhibit most urinary tract pathogens. Single (400 mg) and multiple oral dose regimens (100 to 600 mg twice or 3 times daily for 5 to 14 days) of enoxacin are as effective for the treatment of patients with complicated or uncomplicated urinary tract infections as other antibacterial agents such as amoxicillin, cefuroxime axetil, cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) or trimethoprim. Noncomparative data suggest that enoxacin is also an effective agent for the treatment of prostatitis. Single 400 mgoral doses of enoxacin produce >/- 95% bacteriological cure rates in gonococcal infections, comparable to those produced by single intramuscular doses of ceftriaxone 250 mg. Perioperative doses of oral enoxacin 200 mg provide effective prophylaxis against postoperative bacteriuria after transurethral resection of the prostate. Concomitant administration of enoxacin with a number of commonly used therapeutic agents (e.g. antacids, methylxanthines, warfarin) affects the pharmacokinetic properties of either enoxacin or the coadministered agents. Enoxacin is reasonably well tolerated, with the incidence of adverse experiences ranging from 0 to 24%. Adverse events are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological or dermatological and resolve with minimal intervention. Overall, although enoxacin exhibits a number of clinical characteristics that are similar to those of other agents for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections, the advantages offered by this agent generally do not outweigh those of alternative fluoroquinolone agents. Thus, it is likely to prove to be yet another addition to the list of agents available for the management of these infections.
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Bronx Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) and the Castle Point VAMC; university-affiliated VAMC general medical wards from September 1993 to March 1995.
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Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial agents continues to spread and intensify. Choosing an antimicrobial regimen requires knowledge of the comparative efficacy of candidate regimens, as delineated in properly conducted clinical trials; their activity against N. gonorrhoeae in vitro; and their pharmacokinetics and toxicity. We tabulated the results of trials of single-dose antimicrobial therapy for uncomplicated gonococcal infection published after 1980. Thirty regimens comprising 21 antimicrobial drugs have been shown to be highly effective for rectal and urogenital infections; the agents involved are cefixime, cefodizime, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, temafloxacin, azithromycin, aztreonam, netilmicin, rifampin plus erythromycin stearate, sisomicin, and spectinomycin. Few regimens have been shown to be highly effective against pharyngeal infections. Among those antimicrobial agents available for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections in the United States, ceftriaxone (125 mg), cefixime (400 mg), ciprofloxacin (500 mg), and ofloxacin (400 mg) appear to offer the best balance of proven efficacy and safety.