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Chloromycetin (Chloramphenicol)

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Generic Chloromycetin is used to treat serious infections in different parts of the body. Sometimes it is given with other antibiotics. Generic Chloromycetin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Metronidazol, Rocephin


Also known as:  Chloramphenicol.


Generic Chloromycetin is an antibiotic. It works by killing or slowing the growth of sensitive bacteria.

Generic name of Generic Chloromycetin is Chloramphenicol.

Chloromycetin is also known as Chloramphenicol, Chlornitromycin, Fenicol, Phenicol, Nevimycin, Vernacetin, Veticol.

Brand name of Generic Chloromycetin is Chloromycetin.


Take Chloromycetin by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Chloromycetin suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Chloromycetin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Chloromycetin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Chloromycetin if you are allergic to Generic Chloromycetin components.

Try to be careful with Generic Chloromycetin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Chloromycetin can harm your baby.

Generic Chloromycetin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Chloromycetin taking suddenly.

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Bacteriologic study.

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Eligibility and trial quality was assessed by two reviewers independently.

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Genomic DNA from the mouse pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C) gene was analyzed in transgenic mice to identify DNA essential for alveolar type II cell-specific expression. SP-C promoter constructs extending either 13 or 4.8 kb upstream of the transcription start site directed lung-specific expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated alveolar cell-specific expression in the lungs of adult transgenic mice, and the pattern of 4.8 SP-C-CAT expression during development paralleled that of the endogenous SP-C gene. With the use of deletion constructs, lung-specific, low-level CAT activity was detected in tissue assays of SP-C-CAT transgenic mice retaining 318 bp of the promoter. In transient and stable cell transfection experiments, the 4.8-kb SP-C promoter was 90-fold more active as a stably integrated gene. These findings indicate that 1) the 4.8-kb SP-C promoter is sufficient to direct cell-specific and developmental expression, 2) an enhancer essential for lung-specific expression maps to the proximal 318-bp promoter, and 3) the activity of the 4.8-kb SP-C promoter construct is highly dependent on its chromatin environment.

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At present, no evidence is available to support the routine use of systemic antibiotics in promoting healing of venous leg ulcers. However, the lack of reliable evidence means that it is not possible to recommend the discontinuation of any of the agents reviewed. In terms of topical preparations, some evidence supports the use of cadexomer iodine. Current evidence does not support the routine use of honey- or silver-based products. Further good quality research is required before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of povidone-iodine, peroxide-based preparations, ethacridine lactate, chloramphenicol, framycetin, mupirocin, ethacridine or chlorhexidine in healing venous leg ulceration. In light of the increasing problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, current prescribing guidelines recommend that antibacterial preparations should be used only in cases of clinical infection, not for bacterial colonisation.

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Cationic lipid structure, cationic lipid/DNA ratio, particle size, co-lipid content and topology of the plasmid, were found to significantly affect transgene expression. Complexation with lipids was found to have a protective effect on DNA integrity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). DNA complexed with lipid showed enhanced persistence in rat lungs as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

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Novel mdfA gene variants were identified simultaneously from 3 of 13 positive isolates of PCR amplification in Escherichia coli from patients. These 13 positive isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The 3 mdfA gene variants were of the same genotype and all the 13 positive isolates were investigated by conjugation experiment, EcoRI restriction, and gene mapping. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the novel mdfA variant and mdfA genes were located on plasmids that were restricted by EcoRI for ∼8.2 kb-length, which was also validated by gene mapping. Further study indicated three types of genetic structures (A, B, and C) in the recombinant plasmids harboring mdfA and surrounding genes, and structure B was first reported in the article. Structure A comprises two partial-length and six full-length genes, including the mdfA gene variant in the recombinant plasmid; structure B comprises four full-length genes, the mdfA, ybjG, dacC, and ybjI; structure C comprises two full-length genes, the mdfA and dacC. These results suggested that the mdfA gene can function as transporter responsible for multidrug resistance and also mediated the synergistic function with its surrounding genes in conjugative plasmids.

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Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin exhibited mechanism A (requires cell division as well as bacterial protein and RNA synthesis to kill bacteria) and C (active against nondividing bacteria but requires protein and RNA synthesis) against the reference strain Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, yet only mechanism A was exhibited by these fluoroquinolones when tested against three clinical isolates: S. aureus Sa-215, Staphylococcus epidermidis Se-81 and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Sx-1. On the contrary, fleroxacin exerted mechanism A and C against the three clinical isolates but only mechanism A against the reference strain. Ofloxacin displayed mechanism A against S. epidermidis Se-81, mechanism A and C against S. haemolyticus and mechanism A and B (active against nondividing bacteria and does not require protein and RNA synthesis) against the two S. aureus tested. Sparfloxacin showed mechanism A and C against the four Staphylococcus species studied, and temafloxacin was the only fluoroquinolone tested that exhibited mechanism A and B against the four bacterial strains assayed. No correlation was found between the in vitro bactericidal activity (expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration and optimal bactericidal concentration) and the mechanisms of action exhibited by these fluoroquinolones.

chloromycetin is an antibiotic with the formula

Fifty-five of the isolates were positive for class 1 integrons. Integron-positive isolates represented 17 different serovars and were mainly from human (n=28) and animal (n=13) sources. The gene cassette arrangements could be determined in 51 of the positive isolates, which harboured one [dfrA22, aadA1 or orf3 (putative trimethoprim resistance)], two [aadA1-dfrA1, aac(6')-Ib-orf1 (unknown function) or aacA4-aadA1], three [dfrA15b-cmlA4-aadA2, orf2 (unknown function)-dfrA5-orfD] or four [orf4-aacA4-blaOXA-30 (interrupted by an IS1 element)-aadA1] cassettes in their variable region. Only one isolate harboured a class 2 integron with the gene cassette array dfrA1-sat-aadA1. Several integron unrelated resistance genes were also detected in the isolates. Sulphonamide resistance was primarily mediated by sul2 and sul3, tetracycline resistance by tet(B) and tet(A), chloramphenicol resistance by catA1, streptomycin resistance by strA and ampicillin resistance by blaTEM. blaCTX and blaCMY-2 were found in cephalosporin-resistant isolates. Mating and hybridization experiments demonstrated that a high-molecular-weight plasmid mediated the gene transfer of integrons and additional resistance determinants.

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  These sympatric rodent species had no obvious contact with antimicrobials, and the difference in resistance profiles between rodent species and seasons suggests that factors present in their environment are unlikely to be drivers of such resistance.

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People of all ages with urinary tract infections presenting at health centres in Harare.

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A simple and rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) confirmation method for the analysis chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk powder has been developed. Samples were extracted by using liquid-liquid extraction steps with ethyl acetate. Lipids were removed using hexsan. LC separation was achieved by using a Phenomenex Luna C-18 column and acetonitryle-water as a mobile phase. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) with negative electro-spray interface (ESI-). The four transitions were monitored m/z 321-->257, 321-->194, 321-->152, 326-->157 (IS) and for quantification, the transition m/z 321-->152 was chosen. Validation of the method was done according to criteria of Decision Commission No 2002/657 EC. Validation includes the determination of specification, linearity, precision (within- and between-day), accuracy, decision limit (CC alpha) and detection capability (CC beta). Samples were fortified at CAP levels 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 microg/kg with CAP-5d as internal standard. The precision within-day (RSD%) was lower than 12% and accuracy (RE%) ranged from -9.8 to -3.7%. The precision between-day (RSD%) was less than 15%. The limit of decision (CC alpha) and detection capability (CC beta) for milk powder 0.09 and 0.11 microg/kg. Value CC alpha and CC beta were calculated for the 321-->152 ion transition. This method has been successfully used for routine analysis.

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chloromycetin capsules 500mg 2015-02-16

After designing in vitro models of repeated exposure of Salmonella spp. to various beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones we studied the decrease in susceptibility to other antibiotic families of the Dalacin C Capsule Price mutants generated. There was a decrease in the susceptibility of all the mutants to tetracycline, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol. Mutants generated following exposure to fluoroquinolones showed reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and cefuroxime, whereas mutants generated following beta-lactam exposure showed reduced susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. We observed that the efflux pump systems are activated in the mutants generated and this may therefore be the cause of the decrease in susceptibility. In many cases the decrease is small and is not detected if the CLSI criteria are applied. Nevertheless, more detailed studies should be done to evaluate the importance of this phenomenon and rationalize the use of antibiotics in both humans and animals so as to control the increase in the number of multiresistant strains.

chloromycetin suspension 2015-04-16

The use of antibiotics in birds and animals intended for human consumption within the European Union (EU) and elsewhere has been subject to regulation prohibiting the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and the use of last resort antibiotics in an attempt to reduce the spread of multi-resistant Gram negative bacteria. Given the inexorable spread of antibiotic resistance there is an increasing need for improved monitoring of our food. Using selective media, Gram negative bacteria were isolated from retail chicken of UK-Intensively reared (n=27), Irish-Intensively reared (n=19) and UK-Free range (n=30) origin and subjected to an oligonucleotide based array system Oroken Syrup for the detection of 47 clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two integrase genes. High incidences of β-lactamase genes were noted in all sample types, acc (67%), cmy (80%), fox (55%) and tem (40%) while chloramphenicol resistant determinants were detected in bacteria from the UK poultry portions and were absent in bacteria from the Irish samples. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to qualitatively analyse the Gram negative population in the samples and showed the expected diversity based on band stabbing and DNA sequencing. The array system proved to be a quick method for the detection of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) burden within a mixed Gram negative bacterial population.

chloromycetin suspension plm 2015-11-05

Bacteroides is a predominant anaerobic bacteria of the human colon. Since the ten species Ifos Levofloxacina 500 Mg Para Que Sirve of the Bacteroides fragilis group are responsible for most anaerobic endogenous infections, the antimicrobial resistance of these bacteria is of great concern due to the role they can play in the dissemination of resistance. Eighty non-diarrheic human feces samples were analyzed. Each sample was inoculated in BBE (Bacteroides Bile Esculin) and KVLB (Kanamycin, Vancomycin, Laked Blood) agar plates and were incubated in anaerobic conditions for 48 h at 35 degrees C. For identification and antimicrobial sensitivity, miniaturized systems for anaerobic bacteria (Rapid ID-32A and ATB ANA, Biomerieux) were used. Sixty-four (80%) of the samples were positive for at least one Bacteroides fragilis species; B. uniformis and B. fragilis were the most frequent species (24.6% and 16.9%); B. stercoris and B. eggerthii were the least frequent (0.7 and 2.1%). The strains showed resistance to different penicillins (40.2-93.1%), some even in the presence of beta-lactamase inhibitors, to cephalosporins (31.0-52.1%) and to frequently used antibiotics against anaerobes, such as clindamycin (32.2%) and imipenem (10.3%). The most effective antimicrobials against Bacteroides fragilis were piperacillin and ticarcillin combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, as well as chloramphenicol and metronidazole (>90% susceptibility). None of the B. fragilis group were resistant to clindamycin or metronidazole, but one-third of the imipenem-resistant strains belonged to this species. The most resistant species was B. distasonis, while B. vulgatus was the most susceptible. None of the tested antimicrobials were effective against all ten species; the majority of the species had some isolates that were resistant to imipenem, metronidazole or clindamycin. This resistance pattern suggests the presence of efficient transmission mechanisms among these endogenous bacteria.

chloromycetin antibiotic 2017-12-31

Of those with diarrhea, 40.9% were less than one year old and 71.0% were less than two years old. A potential pathogen was identified in 67.3% of children with diarrhea. They were group A rotavirus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, and enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, with prevalences of 46.7%, 22.5%, 4.7%, and 7.3%, respectively. No Salmonella spp or Vibrio cholerae were isolated. Rotavirus and diarrheagenic E. coli were predominant in children less than two years of age, while Shigella spp, and enterotoxigenic B. fragilis were mostly seen in the older children. Diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella spp showed high prevalence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Children attending the hospitals had fever (43.6%), vomiting (53.8%), and dehydration (82.6%). Watery stool was predominant Moxifloxacin Alcohol with a prevalence of 66.4%, followed by mucous stool (21.0%). The mean episodes of stools per day was seven, ranging from two to 23 episodes. Before attending hospitals, 162/587 (27.6%) children had been given antibiotics. Overall, more children got diarrhea in (i) poor families; (ii) families where piped water and a latrine were lacking; (iii) families where mothers washed their hands less often before feeding the children; (iv) families where mothers had a low level of education; (v) families where information on health and sanitation less often reached their households.

chloromycetin capsulas 500 mg 2015-10-27

Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) with nine antibiotics was determined on 188 isolates of S. pyogenes collected from outpatients with pharyngitis in four children's hospitals in different regions of China in 2007. MICs of penicillin, chloramphenicol, cefradine, levofloxacin, macrolide (erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin,), clindamycin, and Sulfa Drug Reaction Symptoms tetracycline were determined by the microdilution method. The macrolide resistant phenotypes of isolates were determined through a double-disk. The macrolide-resistant genes (mefA, ermB, and ermA) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

chloromycetin eye drops dose 2015-11-20

We cloned two operons for putative RND-type multidrug efflux pumps from Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a PCR method. We designated the genes in one operon mexPQ(-opmE) and in another operon mexMN. Introduction of the mexPQ-opmE into drug hypersensitive cells resulted in elevated MICs of macrolides, fluoroquinolones and some other drugs. Introduction of the mexMN into the hypersensitive cells possessing oprM, but not into cells not possessing oprM, resulted in elevated MICs of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. Thus, we conclude Para Que Es La Azitromicina De 500 Mg that MexPQ-OpmE and MexMN-OprM are functional multidrug efflux pumps when expressed in P. aeruginosa.

chloromycetin brand name 2015-07-08

Lipoteichoic and wall teichoic acids (TA) are highly anionic cell envelope-associated polymers containing repeating polyglycerol/ribitol phosphate moieties. Substitution of TA with D-alanine is important for modulation of many cell envelope-dependent processes, such as activity of autolytic enzymes, binding of divalent cations, and susceptibility to innate host defenses. D-Alanylation of TA is diminished when bacteria are grown in medium containing increased NaCl concentrations, but the effects of increased salt concentration on expression of the dlt operon encoding proteins mediating D-alanylation of TA are unknown. We demonstrate that Staphylococcus aureus transcriptionally represses dlt expression in response to high concentrations of Na(+) and moderate concentrations of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) but not sucrose. Changes in dlt mRNA are induced within 15 min and sustained for several generations of growth. Mg(2+)-induced dlt repression depends on the ArlSR two-component system. Northern blotting, reverse transcription-PCR, and SMART-RACE analyses suggest that the dlt transcript begins 250 bp upstream of the dltA start codon and includes an open reading frame immediately upstream of dltA. Chloramphenicol transacetylase transcriptional fusions indicate that a region encompassing the 171 to 325 bp upstream of dltA is required for expression and Mg(2+)-induced repression of the dlt operon in S. aureus.

chloromycetin 250 mg para que sirve 2015-10-18

Eighty isolates were identified as MRSA among 102 strains of Staphylococcus aureus collected, and then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. The 4 primers of active efflux gene were designed to amplify the 80 clinical isolates respectively by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis in order to grasp the situation of the existence of the four genes (norA, qacA, qacB and qacJ). Omeprazole inhibition test was used to observe the changes in the susceptibility of MRSA to antibiotics.

chloromycetin suspension 125 mg 2016-12-31

Expression of c-fos gene was enhanced by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL6) in the synovial cells of early passage, whereas it was not enhanced in the synovial cells of late passage. The c-fos gene expression was also enhanced by 13-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in early passage but was somewhat suppressed in the late passage. It was found that the c-fos gene and c-Fos protein were both increased in the synovial cells of late passage. Similarly, c-fos gene expression was also not increased by TPA or cytokine stimulation in the stable c-fos transformants (fos-pH8) or H-ras transformed NIH3T3 cells (NIH H-ras cells) that constitutively expressed c-fos genes.

chloromycetin capsule 2015-03-16

Exposure of these cells to different concentrations of chromium chloride (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mM) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in apoA-I promoter activity (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase activity expressed as a percentage of an internal control was 99.4 +/- 7.2% in control cells versus 87.6 +/- 5.0%, 73.4 +/- 2.3%, and 36.6 +/- 3.9%, respectively, P < 0.01). Chromium chloride at 10 mM concentration was toxic and caused death in a large number of cells. Treating HepG2 cells with other minerals known to have insulin-sensitizing effects such as magnesium (1 mM), zinc (0.2 mM), and vanadyl sulfate (0.1 mM) significantly reduced apoA-I promoter activity in the presence and absence of 100 microU/mL of insulin. Northern blot analyses showed that the apoA-I mRNA content of cells treated with 0.2 mM of chromium chloride relative to G3PDH mRNA was not significantly increased compared with controls (0.652 +/- 0.122 versus 0.745 +/- 0.143, the ratio of apoA-I to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA in control and chromium-treated cells, respectively). Western blot analyses of proteins secreted in culture media indicated that neither chromium treatment of the HepG2 cells (858.0 +/- 151.4 arbitrary units) nor treatment with magnesium (1323.3 +/- 175.7) or vanadium (1102 +/- 78.7) significantly altered apoA-I concentrations compared with controls (1061.7 +/- 114.7). However treatment of HepG2 cells with 0.2 mM of zinc significantly reduced apoA-I concentrations (291.0 +/- 29.2 versus 1061.7 +/- 114.7; P < 0.001).

chloromycetin suspension mufel 2017-08-10

We have previously shown that the proximal sequences of the human aldolase A fast-muscle-specific promoter (pM) are sufficient to target the expression of a linked CAT reporter gene to all fast, glycolytic trunk and limb muscles of transgenic mice (pM310CAT lines) in a manner mimicking the activity of the endogenous mouse promoter. When a NF1-binding site (motif M2) in this proximal regulatory region is mutated, the activity of the corresponding mM2 transgene is strongly affected but only in a some fast muscles. Here we show that the mutation of the M2 motif has only mild effects on pM activity in axial and proximal limb, while it drastically reduces this activity in both fore and hind limb distal muscles. At the cellular level, we show that both the pM310CAT and mM2 transgenes are highly expressed in fast glycolytic 2B fibers. However, by contrast to the pM310CAT transgene, whose expression is mainly restricted to fast glycolytic 2B fibers, the mM2 transgene is also active in a high proportion of 2X fibers. This result suggests that the M2 sequence could play a role in restricting the expression of pM to the 2B fibers. The variable expression of the mM2 transgene along the limb axis already exists at post-natal day 10 and seems to result from a change in the proportion of expressing fast fibers per muscle. Altogether, these results suggest that, although considered as phenotypically similar, different populations of fast glycolytic fibers exist, in which the requirement of the NF1 activity for pM expression varies according to the proximal versus distal position of the muscle along the limb axis.