A fast and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of cefatrizine, an orally active cephalosporin, in serum and urine is proposed. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography on the octoadecylsilane chemically bonded microparticulate packing, using methanol in 0.03 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 5) as eluent, was used to separate and quantitate the antibiotic. The samples were analysed after deproteinization with trichloroacetic acid and injection of the clear supernatant. The accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure were investigated by determination of the cefatrizine content in spiked serum and urine samples, using cephradine as the internal standard.
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The probability of oral bioavailability for beta-lactam antibiotics is mainly determined by their affinity to PEPTI. A threshold K(i) value of 14 mM with respect to Gly-Sar uptake is required.
The new oral cephalosporins cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten demonstrate enhanced activity against Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to the established compounds as well (e.g. cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefadroxil). In addition, cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten include in their spectrum species hitherto resistant to oral cephalosporins (Proteus vulgaris, Providencia spp., Yersinia enterocolitica). Besides, the majority of these compounds demonstrate relevant activity (MIC50 equal to or below 2 mg/l) against Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, Serratia spp. and Morganella morganii. Ceftibuten is the most potent oral cephalosporin against most of the Enterobacteriaceae. Non-fermentative bacilli (Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp.) remain completely resistant to oral cephalosporins (except some Acinetobacter species against cefdinir and Pseudomonas cepacia against ceftibuten). Antistaphylococcal activity for oral cephalosporins is highest for cefdinir followed by BAY 3522, cefprozil, cefuroxime and cefpodoxime. Loracarbef, cefaclor and cefadroxil are about equally active, while the other compounds are only weakly active (cefixime) or inactive (cefetamet, ceftibuten). Enterococci are insensitive to new generation oral cephalosporins as they have been to established compounds. The most active oral cephalosporins against hemolytic streptococci are cefdinir and cefprozil. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus milleri and Streptococcus mitior are most susceptible to cefpodoxime, cefdinir, cefuroxime and BAY 3522. Penicillin resistant pneumococci have to be regarded as resistant to all oral cephalosporins. Fastidious pathogens like Haemophilus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are more susceptible to cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten than to the other oral cephalosporins. The activity of oral cephalosporins is only weak against Listeria spp., Helicobacter pylori and anaerobic pathogens (except BAY 3522). Bordetella pertussis remains resistant to all absorbable cephalosporins. Progress in antibacterial activity of oral cephalosporins was mainly achieved by cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten against Enterobacteriaceae and the fastidious pathogens and against staphylococci and the nonenterococcal streptococci by cefdinir, BAY 3522, cefprozil and cefpodoxime.
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Renal assimilation of short chain peptides plays an important role in systemic protein metabolism and amino acid homeostasis. The transepithelial peptide transport across the apical membrane of tubular cells is mediated almost exclusively by pH-dependent H(+)-peptide symport pathways. The current study was designed to identify by visualization functional peptide transport activity along the nephron structures.
The peptide transporter PEPT2 mediates transmembrane uptake of small peptides. So far, its expression has not been evidenced in the gastrointestinal tract. We have investigated peptide transport activity in the neuromuscular layers of the gastrointestinal tract by using the fluorescent tracer-dipeptide beta-Ala-Lys-Nepsilon-7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin-3-acetic acid (Ala-Lys-AMCA). Whole-mount preparations from mouse, rat, and guinea pig stomach and small and large intestine were incubated with Ala-Lys-AMCA in the presence or absence of the uptake-inhibitors L-histidine, D-phenylalanyl-L-alanine (D-Phe-Ala), glycyl-L-sarcosine (Gly-Sar), glycyl-L-glutamine (Gly-Gln), benzylpenicillin, and cefadroxil. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that Ala-Lys-AMCA specifically accumulated in both ganglionic layers of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in all regions and species studied. This could be inhibited by Gly-Sar, D-Phe-Ala, Gly-Gln, and cefadroxil, but not by free histidine and benzylpenicillin, indicating uptake via PEPT2. Accordingly, dipeptide uptake was completely abolished in PEPT2-deficient mice. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis detected a PEPT2-specific transcript in extracts from the ganglionic ENS layers of mouse small and large intestine, further proving that enteric dipeptide transport activity is specifically mediated via PEPT2. The cellular site of dipeptide uptake was immunohistochemically localized to enteric glial cells and tissue-resident macrophages. In addition, dipeptide uptake occurred in a neurochemically defined subset of neurons in the guinea pig ENS. Our results constitute the first functional evidence for dipeptide transport activity in the ENS. PEPT2-mediated dipeptide transport in enteric glia could contribute to the clearance of neuropeptides in the ENS. In addition, the fluorophore-coupled dipeptide uptake via PEPT2 is a novel vital marker for glial cells in the ENS.
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Aerosol administration of peptide based drugs has an important role in the treatment of various pulmonary and systemic diseases. The characterisation of pulmonary peptide transport pathways can lead to new strategies in aerosol drug treatment.
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The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the published evidence regarding the commonly held belief that patients with a history of an allergic reaction to penicillin have a significantly increased risk of an allergic reaction to cephalosporins.
Acidity constants of six cephalosporin antibiotics, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefotaxim, cefoperazon and cefoxitin are determined using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and pH-potentiometric titrations. Since CZE is a separation method, it is not necessary for the samples to be of high purity and known concentration because only mobilities are measured. The effect on determination of dissociation constants of different matrices (serum, 0.9% NaCl, fermentation matrix) was examined. The advantages of CZE can be utilized in those fields where potentiometry has limitations (sample quantity, solubility, purity, simultaneous determinations), although pK(a) values that are close to each other can be determined by potentiometry with more accuracy.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate amoxicillin (AMX) distribution in muscle interstitial fluid by microdialysis in healthy, awake rats. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the jugular vein and hind leg muscle. Probe recoveries in each rat were determined by retrodialysis with cefadroxil. AMX was administered as a bolus dose of 50 mg.kg(-1), and microdialysis samples were collected during 180 min. Concentrations of unbound drug in blood and muscle were analyzed simultaneously by a population approach. Simulations were conducted using a hybrid, physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to investigate the potential impact of tissue blood flow on muscle AMX distribution. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model described adequately the unbound amoxicillin concentration-time profiles in blood and muscle. Muscle AMX distribution equilibrium was rapidly achieved. Consequently, the best results were obtained by considering concentrations in muscle as part of the central compartment. The ratio of the concentration of unbound drug in muscle to that in blood (Rmodel) was estimated to 0.80 by the model, which is close to the mean value obtained by noncompartmental data analysis (Rarea= 0.86 +/- 0.29). Simulations conducted with a hybrid, physiologically based pharmacokinetic model suggest that a muscle blood flow reduction of 30% to 50%, such as could be encountered in critical care patients, has virtually no effect on muscle AMX concentration profiles. In conclusion, this study has clearly demonstrated that AMX distributes rapidly and extensively within muscle interstitial fluid, consistent with theory, and that altered muscle blood flow seems unlikely to have a major effect on these distribution characteristics.