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Dysphagia and retrosternal pain are common complaints in patients after cardiac operations, and most often they result from the median sternotomy and/or endotracheal intubation. Although Candida esophagitis is a recognized cause of similar symptoms, it is usually not suspected except in immunologically compromised hosts. This report describes the case histories of five patients, not immunosuppressed or cachectic, who developed persistent dysphagia during recovery from cardiac operations; four patients received only 4 days of preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotic treatment with cefazolin (Kefzol) and cephalexin (Keflex). A nasogastric tube had been used for less than 24 hours in the postoperative period. The fifth patient developed symptoms following prolonged and varied antibiotic therapy. Candida esophagitis was diagnosed by a combination of coexisting oral candidiasis (5/5), roentgenographic appearance on barium swallow (5/5), endoscopy (4/4), and biopsy or culture (2/4). Initial therapy consisted of antireflux measures and antacids (4/5), cimetidine (4/5), oral nystatin in methylcellulose base (1,000,000 units every 4 hours) (4/5), and termination of other antibiotic therapy (1/5). These measures were effective in clearing the infection in only two patients. A third patient required prolonged massive oral nystatin therapy, and in two patients intravenous Amphotericin B was necessary to control infection. Two patients subsequently developed strictures which necessitated multiple esophageal dilatations. One of these patients developed endocarditis during home dilatation therapy. All patients are currently free of disease. Current measures utilized to recognize and treat the disease are discussed.
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Investigations were performed on the bactericidal activity of cephalexin (keflex) and normal cord serum (NCS) against Escherichia coli K1 strains isolated from UTI. A synergistic interaction of the antibiotic and NCS was found against the strains resistant and sensitive to the serum.
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The most frequently prescribed drug products were reviewed for insights into prescribing and dispensing patterns for ambulatory patients. The indications for eight of the "top" drug products were considered to be pharmacologically or therapeutically questionable. The drug products were: tetracycline, systemic; Dimetapp; Empirin Compound with Codeine; Actified; Darvon Compound 65; Darvocet-N; Donnatal; and Keflex. Drug prescribing review and prescriber education are crucially needed, as well as formulary controls when feasible.
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In order to evaluate efficacy and safety of L-Keflex (granule form of sustained release cephalexin), a double blind study comparing it with Keflex (capsule of regular cephalexin) was conducted in dental infections. Evaluable cases in adults for efficacy of the drugs were 196 consisting of 97 for L-Keflex and 99 for Keflex. Those in children were 19 (8 for L-Keflex and 11 for Keflex). There were no significant differences in background of the patients and severity of the diseases between both groups (L-Keflex and Keflex groups). The daily doses used in both groups were 1,000 mg in adults and 500 mg in children, respectively. The dose was given in two divided doses for L-Keflex group and in four divided doses for Keflex group. Following are evaluation by the committee members for the study: Adults 1. Clinical response rate at final therapy day was 93.8% in L-Keflex group and 92.9% in Keflex group, showing no significant difference between both groups. 2. No significant difference in severity of subjective and objective symptoms between both groups was observed at each therapy day. 3. Side effects were found in 6.7% of 105 patients receiving L-Keflex and in 5.6% of 107 patients with Keflex, and there was no significant difference between both groups. As the side effects, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash and itching were observed, but no any other side effects were found in both groups. Children 1. As shown in the above, number of the cases enough to evaluate statistically was not obtained, but all of both groups clinically responded to the drugs. 2. As for side effects diarrhea was observed in only one patient of Keflex group consisting of 12 patients. In the patient, however, discontinuation of the drug was not required and the side effect disappeared during the therapy. From the above results, L-Keflex (granule) is judged to have more convenience than Keflex (capsule) in that (1) it can be administered with b.i.d. regimen and (2) it can be easily taken in dental patients such as patients having difficulty in opening mouth of swallowing pain.
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A prospective study has been made of 36 children with ruptured appendicitis. Alternate patients were managed with a standard protocol of therapy differing only in the antibiotics used. One group received a combination of penicillin/streptomycin/sulfadiazine while the other children were treated with cephalothin (Keflin) and cephalexin (Keflex). No major infections complications occurred in the P/S/S study group but there were four in the C/C patients. No serious adverse reactions due to the antibiotics occurred in either group.
Selected antibiotic advertisements in medical journals are discussed to illustrate the misleading information that is often disseminated to physicians by the pharmaceutical industry. Laboratory and clinical data are presented to question the validity of selected advertisements which (1) encourage the use of Keflex for severe respiratory infections in children, (2) recommend the use of Keflex for the treatment of bacterial bronchitis, (3) suggest that high tissue penetration is a unique property of Vibramycin, (4) present pooled susceptability data which do not reflect microbial resistance patterns in the patient's hospital, (5) recommend twice-daily administration of Ancef for urinary tract infections but do not clearly state the potential danger of this regimen for other infections, (6) suggest that gentamicin should be given to adults in only two dosage sizes for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections, and (7) lead the reader to assume that only women need to be treated for Trichomonas infections. It is suggested that as antibiotics are marketed, hospital therapeutics committees should evaluate their advantages and permit formulary additions for only those agents demonstrating increased efficacy, decreased toxicity or decreased cost. Pharmacists who monitor drug therapy can provide information to the physician which will increase his awareness of optimal antibiotic therapy.
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In two prospective, randomized multicenter double-blind studies with a dosage of either 250 mg given four times a day (study A) or 500 mg given two times a day (study B), the comparative efficacy and safety of cephalexin hydrochloride (LY061188; Keftab) and cephalexin monohydrate (Keflex) for treatment of skin and soft tissue infections were determined. In study A, 97 patients received cephalexin hydrochloride and 101 patients received cephalexin monohydrate. In study B, 75 patients received cephalexin hydrochloride and 70 patients received cephalexin monohydrate. Diagnoses included abscesses, cellulitis, wound infections, and infected dermatitis, and were comparable in the different treatment groups. Pathogens were isolated from 82% of patients enrolled; the majority of isolates were of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, other staphylococcal species, and a few gram-negative bacteria. In study A, 68 of 71 (95.7%) evaluable patients who received cephalexin hydrochloride responded satisfactorily; 73 of 81 (90%) patients who received cephalexin monohydrate also responded satisfactorily. In study B, 56 of 58 (96.5%) evaluable patients who received cephalexin hydrochloride responded satisfactorily; 47 of 50 (94%) patients who received cephalexin monohydrate also responded satisfactorily. An adverse clinical event leading to discontinuation of the treatment drug developed in 17 of 343 (4.95%) patients in both studies. No differences were noted between the two drugs. Skin eruptions, pruritus, and mild gastrointestinal symptoms were the common adverse effects. These data suggest that cephalexin hydrochloride, a new formulation of cephalexin, is a safe and effective antimicrobial agent for treatment of a variety of skin and subcutaneous infections in a dosage of either 250 mg four times a day or 500 mg twice a day.
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To our knowledge, TTP has not been reported previously after administration of cephalosporin antibiotics. Attention is called to the possibility that this syndrome may occur after exposure to some of these drugs, although the incidence is very rare or, alternatively, underdiagnosed.
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Different clinical materials collected from 100 patients admitted in hospital or who attended out door clinic were used. Antibiotics like Enoxabid, Fortum, Ceporex, Klaricid, Maxaquin, Zenacef, Ceporexin, Urixin, Septran, Keflex. Erythrocine, vibramycin and tetracycline were used for culture sensitivity.
Proteus species produces toxins and constitutes a causative agent of some chronic and recurrent infections. For the study of haemolytic activity and the production and inhibition kinetics, a total of 140 local isolates were diagnosed and examined by the general biochemical methods, and their ability of haemolysis were tested by both direct and indirect methods utilizing the enrichment procedure for all strains. Two antibiotics, erythromycin and keflex (cephalexin), were tested for the study of haemolysis inhibition and its kinetisc. Rof further study, examples of Proteus species were selected; the new approach was based on mixing procedure between P. aeruginosa (also pyocyanine) and Proteus species for inhibition of haemolytic activity. Spectrophotometric analysis were used parallel to these studies to support quantitatively the observed results as all samples show an absorption centre at 542 +/- 1 nm. Results of such analysis of haemolytic activity and inhibition kinetics are presented.