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Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 × (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people.
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In 2001, vancomycin replaced cefuroxime for antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution due to high rates of surgical site infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. However, few data supported the use of vancomycin for surgical prophylaxis.
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The in vitro activity of Bay 12-8039, a new oral 8-methoxyquinolone, was compared to the activities of 11 other oral antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, amoxicillin clavulanate, penicillin, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, and doxycycline) against 250 aerobic and 140 anaerobic bacteria recently isolated from animal and human bite wound infections. Bay 12-8039 was active against all aerobic isolates, both gram-positive and gram-negative isolates, at < or = 1.0 microg/ml (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90s < or = 0.25 microg/ml) and was active against most anaerobes at < or = 0.5 microg/ml; the exceptions were Fusobacterium nucleatum and other Fusobacterium species (MIC90s, > or = 4.0 microg/ml) and one strain of Prevotella loeschii (MICs, 2.0 microg/ml). In comparison, the other quinolones tested had similar in vitro activities against the aerobic strains but were less active against the anaerobes, including peptostreptococci, Porphyromonas species, and Prevotella species. The fusobacteria were relatively resistant to all the antimicrobial agents tested except penicillin G (one penicillinase-producing strain of F. nucleatum was found) and amoxicillin clavulanate.
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These data suggest that the frequency of acquisition of additional mutations differs between the wild-type and the GrlA mutant of S. aureus. Also, GrlA mutation predisposes S. aureus to develop high-level quinolone resistance.
Sulfasalazine and tetracyclines are effective against rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Levofloxacin, the bacteriologically active isomer of ofloxacin, is used in the treatment of infections caused by periodontopathic bacteria and facultative anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of levofloxacin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
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The aim of the study was to assess the prescribing practices of fluoroquinolones (FQ) among general practionners in the town of Sousse (central-eastern Tunisia). A transversal study was made between the first and the 23rd April, 2009, among general practionners working in Sousse. For each prescription, informations about patients, indications and modalities of treatment were collected on a questionnaire. These prescriptions were compared to Tunisian and/or French guidelines for antibiotics use. One hundred and eighty eight FQ prescriptions were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 50 years. FQ were more often used alone (83%) and in first line intention (84%). The molecules used were essentially ciprofloxacin (44.7%), levofloxacin (35.6%) and ofloxacin (18.6%). The indications were mainly bronchopulmonary infections (34%) and urinary tract infection (32%). These choices were in accordance with guidelines in 41% of the prescriptions. The dosage was adapted, but the duration of treatment was often excessive. Further efforts are needed, to optimize the good use of FQ in order to reduce or stabilize the rate of bacterial resistance.
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Little is known to date about the in vitro activity of fluoroquinolones against Borrelia species. Our study aimed at determining the in vitro activities of 15 quinolones against nine isolates of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in addition to one Borrelia valaisiana and one Borrelia bissettii tick isolate. For the determination of MICs, a standardized colorimetric microdilution method was applied. Determination of minimal borreliacidal concentrations providing 100% killing of the final inoculum (MBCs) after 72 h and time-kill experiments were performed by conventional culture in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium in combination with dark-field microscopy. The rank order of potency on a microgram-per-milliliter basis for the substances with in vitro activity against B. burgdorferi was gemifloxacin (MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC(90)], 0.12 microg/ml) > sitafloxacin (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/ml), grepafloxacin (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/ml) > gatifloxacin (MIC(90), 1 microg/ml), sparfloxacin (MIC(90), 1 microg/ml), trovafloxacin (MIC(90), 1 microg/ml) > moxifloxacin (MIC(90), 2 microg/ml), ciprofloxacin (MIC(90), 2 microg/ml) > levofloxacin (MIC(90), 4 microg/ml) > ofloxacin (MIC(90), 8 microg/ml), norfloxacin (MIC(90), 8 microg/ml) > fleroxacin (MIC(90), >16 microg/ml), and pefloxacin (MIC(90), 32 microg/ml) > nalidixic acid (MIC(90), 256 microg/ml). After 72 h of exposure, gemifloxacin was borreliacidal (100% killing) against the isolates investigated at a median MBC of 4 microg/ml. In the other compounds tested, median MBCs were higher (> or =8 microg/ml). Results of electron microscopy and time-kill studies clearly support an in vitro activity of some fluoroquinolones against borreliae. Our study demonstrates for the first time the enhanced in vitro effectiveness of some of the recently introduced 4-quinolones against B. burgdorferi.
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Of the 25 cases, 16 (64%) were aged under 2 years, 5 (20%) were aged 2-5 years, and 4 (16%) were aged over 5 years. Fourteen cases (56%) were complicated by infection of other organs, and 5 cases (20%) had underlying chronic diseases. Fever was the most common clinical manifestation, and the majority presented with remittent fever. Eight patients with pneumonia or pyothorax had pulmonary symptoms. Five patients with purulent meningitis had neurological symptoms, five cases had hepatosplenomegaly and two cases had septic shock. Nineteen cases (76%, 19/25) had significantly elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, twenty-one cases (84%, 21/25) had significantly elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and eight cases (50%, 8/16) had significantly elevated serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels. The drug sensitivity analysis showed that invasive SP had high resistance rates to penicillin (96%), clindamycin hydrochloride (88%) and erythromycin (84%), and it was completely sensitive to imipenem, vancomycin, levofloxacin and linezolid. The multi-drug resistance rate of invasive SP was up to 88%. Twenty-three cases (92%) were cured or improved after active treatment.
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Clinicians were contacted concerning 377 patients. For 58.7% of patients, the switch from intravenous to oral administration was made. In case of refusal, several reasons were mentioned by the clinician, some more appropriate than others.
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The in vitro susceptibilities of 103 Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates, 14 Mycoplasma hominis isolates, 12 Mycoplasma fermentans isolates, and 24 Ureaplasma species to ABT-773, an investigational ketolide, and seven other agents were determined. For M. pneumoniae, the ABT-773 MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(90); or=16-fold lower than those of all three fluoroquinolones. Minimal bactericidal concentrations determined for a subgroup of organisms were