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The rate of clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori strains from Japanese children was extremely high, in contrast to those from their parents or adult patients. Prior history of clarithromycin usage in a child suggested development of clarithromycin resistance in resident H. pylori, which was originated from a parent.
Bacterial isolates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were obtained by tympanocentesis and subsequent culture of middle ear effusion from children with acute otitis media enrolled in a multicenter trial. Susceptibility to test agents was assessed by disk diffusion and broth dilution techniques with criteria established by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.
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We report a 62-year-old man who presented with Schönlein-Henoch purpura (SHP) associated with duodenal ulcer and gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The recurrent purpuric rash faded after HP eradication with amoxycillin, clarythromycin, and omeprazole treatment. These findings suggest a causative role for HP in the occurrence of SHP.
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Mycobacterium abscessus is known to be the most drug-resistant Mycobacterium and accounts for ∼80% of pulmonary infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria. This study reports a new Drosophila melanogaster-M. abscessus infection model that can be used as an in vivo efficacy model for anti-M. abscessus drug potency assessment.
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Deregulation of inflammasome activation was recently identified to be involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. Although macrolide antibiotics display well described immunomodulatory properties, presumably involved in their clinical effects, their impact on inflammasome activation has not been investigated. We compared the influence of macrolides on cytokine induction in human monocytes. The role of intracellular azithromycin-accumulation was examined by interference with Ca(++)-dependent uptake. We have also analysed the signalling cascades involved in inflammasome activation, and substantiated the findings in a murine sepsis model. Azithromycin, but not clarithromycin or roxithromycin, specifically inhibited IL-1α and IL-1β secretion upon LPS stimulation. Interference with Ca(++)-dependent uptake abolished the cytokine-modulatory effect, suggesting a role of intracellular azithromycin accumulation in the modulatory role of this macrolide. Azithromycin's inhibiting effects were observed upon LPS, but not upon flagellin, stimulation. Consistent with this observation, we found impaired induction of the LPS-sensing caspase-4 whereas NF-κB signalling was unaffected. Furthermore, azithromycin specifically affected IL-1β levels in a murine endotoxin sepsis model. We provide the first evidence of a differential impact of macrolides on the inflammasome/IL-1β axis, which may be of relevance in inflammasome-driven diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.
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A proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy with clarithromycin (CAM) and amoxicillin (AMPC) is now a standard regimen for Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication in Japan. However, the CAM-resistant rate has increased recently and alternative therapies are sorely needed. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the PPI-tetracycline (TC)-metronidazole (MNZ) regimen (the PTM regimen) as an alternative therapy in comparison with the PPI-AMPC-MNZ (PAM) regimen.
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200 patients were included consecutively (mean age 47 years, 67% women, 13% ulcer). Previous failed therapy included: standard clarithromycin triple therapy (131 patients), sequential (32) and concomitant (37). A total of 96% took all medications correctly. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.1% (95%CI = 87-95%) and 90% (95%CI = 86-94%). Cure rates were similar regardless of previous (failed) treatment or country of origin. Adverse effects were reported in 46% of patients, most commonly nausea (17%) and diarrhoea (16%); 3% were intense but none was serious.
The present study aimed to compare outcomes of pregnancies exposed to the new macrolides clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin with non-teratogenic preparations.
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To compare the eradication rate in two protocols including clarithromycin versus metronidazole in Tunisian adults.
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The in vitro activities of the macrolide antibiotics clarithromycin, 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin, azithromycin, and erythromycin against 19 isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi were investigated. MICs ranged from 0.003 to 0.03 microgram of clarithromycin per ml, 0.007 to 0.03 microgram of 14-hydroxyclarithromycin per ml, 0.003 to 0.03 microgram of azithromycin per ml, and 0.007 to 0.06 microgram of erythromycin per ml. Time-kill studies using the B31 strain of B. burgdorferi demonstrated a > or = 3-log10-unit killing after 72 h with each of the macrolide antibiotics tested in concentrations representing twice the respective MICs.
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National Taiwan University Hospital and National Science Council.
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An omeprazole-based regimen is safe and may be a better option for eradication of H pylori in children. Antral nodularity is a macroscopic marker of H pylori infection.