norfloxacin tz tablet
Forty-five successive HIV-positive patients, 27 with diarrhea (study group) and 18 without diarrhea (control group), were included in the three-month study. The HIV infection was confirmed by three different antibody detection tests. The stool samples were collected on two consecutive days and were examined for parasites by microscopy using wet mount and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. They were examined for bacteria by Gram stain and conventional Ziehl-Neelsen stain and were inoculated on appropriate culture media. The isolates were identified by standard biochemical tests, followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.
norfloxacin 400mg dosage
The mechanisms of the renal excretion of AM-715, a synthetic antimicrobial agent, were studied in rabbits, dogs, and humans. In both rabbits and humans, AM-715 clearance was greater than creatinine clearance and was profoundly decreased by the administration of probenecid. Thus, in these subjects, AM 715 was cleared by both tubular secretion and glomerular filtration. In dogs, however, the excretion ratio (close to unity), biological half-life, and stop-flow pattern of AM-715 were not affected by probenecid, indicating that the renal excretion of AM-715 took place mostly through glomerular filtration. These results suggest that renal excretion of AM-715 differs with animal species.
norfloxacin medication dose
Thirty-one patients with cirrhosis receiving norfloxacin (400 mg/day) were included. Blood samples were collected at 0.5-4 hours (peak samples group, n = 47) and at 22-24 hours (trough samples group, n = 84) after dose. Fifty-nine ascitic fluid samples were obtained. Single doses of norfloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were administered to 13 and 5 patients, respectively, (temporal profile group) and samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, and 24 hours. Norfloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cytokines, nitric oxide, expression levels of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkB-alpha), neutrophil oxidative burst, and rate of apoptotic events were determined.
norfloxacin with alcohol
Genomic DNA of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were characterized by antibiotic resistance, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. These isolates originated from 3 distantly locations of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka (East coastal areas), Malaysia. A total of 44 (n = 44) of tentatively V. parahaemolyticus were also examined for the presence of toxR, tdh and trh gene. Of 44 isolates, 37 were positive towards toxR gene; while, none were positive to tdh and trh gene. Antibiotic resistance analysis showed the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly resistant to bacitracin (92%, 34/37) and penicillin (89%, 33/37) followed by resistance towards ampicillin (68%, 25/37), cefuroxime (38%, 14/37), amikacin (6%, 2/37) and ceftazidime (14%, 5/37). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant towards chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, streptomycin and vancomycin. Antibiogram patterns exhibited, 9 patterns and phenotypically less heterogenous when compared to PCR-based techniques using ERIC- and RAPD-PCR. The results of the ERIC- and RAPD-PCR were analyzed using GelCompare software. ERIC-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 6 clusters and 21 single isolates at a similarity level of 80%. While, RAPD-PCR with primer Gen8 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 11 clusters and 10 single isolates and Gen9 into 8 clusters and 16 single isolates at the same similarity level examined. Results in the presence study demonstrated combination of phenotypically and genotypically methods show a wide heterogeneity among cockle isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.
norfloxacin sandoz tablet 400 mg
100 gram-negative strains isolated from blood cultures were selected for the evaluation of the in vitro activity of oxolinic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin and oxo-enoxacin. Ciprofloxacin showed the highest intrinsic activity. Oxo-enoxacin, the major metabolite of enoxacin, was 10-15-fold less active than enoxacin. Against Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae, all fluorinated quinolones except norfloxacin were equally effective, while against non-fermenters, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin demonstrated greater activity than the others. Resistance to oxolinic acid had a detrimental effect on susceptibility to the new fluorinated quinolones.
norfloxacin tablets ip 400 mg
The in vitro activities of 16 antimicrobial agents against Rickettsia prowazekii (Breinl strain), R. rickettsii (Bitterroot strain), R. sibirica (ATCC No. VR151) and R. tsutsugamushi (Gilliam, Karp, Kato, Shimokoshi, Kawasaki and Kuroki strains) were determined by the cell culture method. Tetracycline, demethylchlortetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, kitasamycin and rifampicin were generally effective (MIC, 0.005-0.78 micrograms/ml) to all strains tested. Quinolones such as norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were moderately active, but they were less active against R. tsutsugamushi than other rickettsial species. Penicillins and cephems showed low activity against most of the strains tested, but high concentrations of benzylpenicillin (MIC, 25-50 micrograms/ml) inhibited R. prowazekii, R. rickettsii and R. sibirica. These findings may be applicable for differentiation of species of genus Rickettsia.
is norfloxacin a strong antibiotic
Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1994 to 1 January 2012.
To examine the possibility of a proton-motive efflux pump for quinolones in highly quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), we studied 3H-norfloxacin uptake in two quinolone-resistant and two quinolone-sensitive strains of MRSA whose gyrA region surrounding amino acid codons 84 and 85 had been sequenced. Two strains were related (one sensitive and one resistant) in that both were recovered from a single patient, one before (sensitive) and one after (resistant) ciprofloxacin therapy. Drug uptake was assessed in four separate experiments running triplicate bacterial suspensions with radiolabeled drug added at time = 0. Sampling was performed in 10 min increments up to 50 min by a vacuum filtration method. The ionic uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCPH), was added at 40 min to test inhibition of a pump mechanism. The results demonstrated no statistically significant differences in uptake between the sensitive and resistant groups, and the uptake patterns were similar. CCCPH also induced an equivalent surge, or enhanced uptake among these strains, rendering an energy-dependent efflux pump an unlikely contributor to the high levels of resistance seen in our strains. Our findings support parallel studies done on these isolates that implicate mutational changes at amino acid codon 84 and/or codon 85 in the gyrA gene as an explanation for high-level quinolone resistance (MIC to ciprofloxacin greater than or equal to 16 mg/L) in MRSA.
norfloxacin helcor 400 mg
DNA gyrase is a bacterial enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent negative supercoiling of DNA. It is the accepted target of quinolones. The enzyme from Citrobacter freundii IID976 was purified by affinity chromatography on novobiocin-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose. It had two subunits, designated A and B, which closely resembled those of the enzyme from Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus in enzymatic requirements. The inhibitory effects of the quinolones on the supercoiling activities of the enzyme correlated with their antibacterial activities. New quinolones were better inhibitors of DNA gyrase than nalidixic acid and pipemidic acid. We also purified DNA gyrase from a spontaneous nalidixic acid-resistant mutant (M2-5). The gyrases from IID976 and M2-5 were defined as mixtures of subunits As+Bs (s, susceptible) and Ar+Br (r, resistant), respectively. The supercoiling activities of reconstituted Ar+Br and Ar+Bs were more resistant to quinolones than As+Bs and As+Br. These findings indicate that one mechanism of C. freundii resistance against quinolones is resistance modification of the A subunit protein.
gyrablock norfloxacin 400 mg
Activity of gatifloxacin against clinical isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is more potent than that of other fluoroquinolones such as norfloxacin and levofloxacin. To date, few reports have described high-level resistance to gatifloxacin in clinical isolates of S. aureus, although in vitro studies have shown that mutations in both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV were required for gatifloxacin resistance in S. aureus.
norfloxacin 100 mg
Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin formed an amber coloured complex with iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate. The complex, which formed instantaneously at room temperature, was stable. The solutions of the complex obeyed Beer's law at 370 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorption of radiation (lambda[max]). The A(1%) for norfloxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin was 202, 207 and 235 respectively. The formation of the complex was the basis for the quantitative and qualitative determination of the drugs. There was statistically no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the results obtained quantitatively by this colorimetric method and those obtained by the microbiological assay method.