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Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is characterized by airway expansion and recurrent acute exacerbations. Macrolide has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in some chronic airway diseases.
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Agar dilution was used to test the activities of HMR 3647, erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin against 235 strains of Enterococcus faecalis. HMR 3647 was the most active compound (MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC50 and MIC90, respectively] of 0.06 and 4.0 microg/ml, respectively). The MIC50 and MIC90 (with the MIC50 given first and the MIC90 given second; both in micrograms per milliliter) for other compounds were as follows: 4.0 and >32.0 for erythromycin A, 16.0 and >32.0 for azithromycin, 2.0 and >32 for clarithromycin, 32.0 and >32.0 for roxithromycin, 32.0 and >32.0 for clindamycin, and 8.0 and 16.0 for quinupristin-dalfopristin. All compounds were only bacteriostatic.
To test the efficacy of short-term administration of RXM, elder IL-10-deficient mice (16-20 weeks old) with established colitis were orally treated for 10 days with RXM (20 mg/kg per day). To test the long-term preventive effects of RXM, for 20 weeks young adult IL-10-deficient mice (4-5 weeks old) also were administered RXM orally (20 mg/kg per day).
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The infection rates of mycoplasma and chlamydia in children suspected NGU were high. Mycoplasma showed drug resistance to a different degree to 10 common antibiotics. The results of chemosensitivity showed that josamycin had the highest susceptibility rate.
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To study the effect of low-dose erythromycin combined with sinus displacement therapy on treating sinusitis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy.
A 48-year-old female was seen at our hospital after having a severe fever of nearly 40 degrees C, for a period of 9 days. She complained of pain in the left side of her chest. An X-ray examination revealed a slight infiltration of the upper and middle lung fields. At this time, it was learned that the women's pet bird had recently died. This case was diagnosed as acute pneumonia due to psittacosis. Therefore the administration of Roxithromycin was started. After a few day her condition improved. During the course of treatment, serum was taken and a throat swab was done. A micro-immunofluorescence (MIF) test was performed to check the serum antibody levels against Chlamydia psittaci. The serum titer rose from 1:8 to 1:256 in 15 days after admission. The final diagnosis was made after positive isolation of C. psittaci by means of the cell culture method.
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Nine structurally similar macrolide antibiotics were tested at a concentration of 0.5 microg/ml for their relative inhibitory effects on ribosome functions in Staphylococcus aureus cells. Eight of the compounds examined inhibited protein synthesis at this concentration. Seven of the nine compounds were also effective in blocking formation of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Roxithromycin and 14-hydroxy clarithromycin inhibited protein synthesis to a greater extent than they affected 50S subunit formation. Conversely, the compound 11, 12-carbonate-3 deoxy-clarithromycin affected 50S assembly more than translation. Only clarithromycin had any effect on 30S ribosomal subunit assembly. The decline in growth rate and cell number was proportional to the effect on ribosome formation or function by each compound. These inhibitory activities can be related to structural differences between these macrolide antibiotics.
Dermatologists must be aware of the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents as well as various drug interactions that may influence the choice of drug as well as specific drug schedules. The development of modern antibacterials has improved the treatment of cutaneous bacterial infections. Macrolide antibacterials continue to be an important therapeutic class of drugs with established efficacy in a variety of skin infections. All macrolides inhibit protein synthesis by reversibly binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA in the 50S-subunit. Erythromycin, the prototype of macrolide antibacterials, was isolated from the metabolic products of a strain of Streptomyces erytherus in 1952. Originally, erythromycin was introduced as an alternative to penicillin because of its activity against the Gram-positive organisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of erythromycin for various infectious diseases. Unfortunately, erythromycin is associated with a number of drawbacks including a narrow spectrum of activity, unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, poor gastrointestinal tolerability, and a significant number of drug-drug interactions. Newer macrolides have been developed to address these limitations. The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin and clarithromycin allow for shorter dosing schedules because of prolonged tissue levels. The efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in adults and children is well established. The unique pharmakinetics of azithromycin makes it a suitable agent for the treatment of acne. Clarithromycin represents a clear advance in the macrolide management of patients with leprosy and skin infections with atypical mycobacteria. Dirithromycin and roxithromycin display no clinical or bacteriological adcantage over erythromycin despite a superior pharmacokinetic profile. An area of concern is the increasing macrolide resistance that is being reported with some of the common pathogens which may limit the clinical usefulness of this class of antimicrobial agents in future.
It has been reported that antibodies to oral anaerobic bacteria are elevated in the serum and synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Macrolide antibiotics are active against oral anaerobic bacteria.
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We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial of oral 500 mg amoxicillin 3 times per day vs oral 300 mg roxithromycin once a day for 10 days.