To investigate the Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection and drug resistance in children with respiratory tract infection and to provide a rational basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MP infection.
rulide antibiotics and drinking alcohol
The effects of roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on neutrophil activities were investigated in six seriously handicapped patients with severe mental retardation. Neutrophil activities were evaluated by flow cytometry using a heparinized blood analysis method. All six patients showed decreased levels of neutrophil phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and CD11b expression. Treatment with roxithromycin in vitro selectively restored the decreased phagocytic and bactericidal activities of neutrophils in these patients. There was no significant restorative effect with cefaclor, ofloxacin, or aztreonam. These results suggest the need to consider therapeutic effects of antibiotics on neutrophil functions in patients at increased risk for bacterial infections due to decreased neutrophil activities.
is rulide related to penicillin
The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin, roxithromycin and spiramycin were examined in parallel for in vivo activity against Toxoplasma gondii. Azithromycin was considerably more active in protecting mice against death due to acute toxoplasmosis even when the other two antibiotics were used at twice its dose. The higher activity of azithromycin prompted a further examination of its activity against five different strains of Toxoplasma gondii, including two isolated from patients with AIDS. Although variable degrees of protection against death were noted, treatment with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days was sufficient to promote survival of 100% of mice infected with inocula as high as 1 x 10(5) tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. 90% of mice inoculated with 1 x 10(5) tachyzoites of strain MO, isolated from an AIDS patient, and treated orally with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days survived the infection whereas only 40% of mice infected with the same inoculum of the SOU strain, also isolated from an AIDS patient, survived. Tissue concentrations of azithromycin were examined in treated infected and non-infected mice. In both groups of mice azithromycin attained high concentrations in liver, spleen and heart, which exceeded concurrent serum levels by 25- to 200-fold. The concentrations in the brain were almost tenfold higher than the concentrations in serum after treatment with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days. Moreover, the concentrations in brains of infected mice were approximately two-fold higher than in brains of non-infected mice.
rulide antibiotics 150mg
This was a pilot study of the use of a clinical pharmacist as a therapeutics adviser (academic detailer) to modify antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners.
rulide 150 mg
Roxithromycin is a derivative of the macrolide antibacterial erythromycin with in vitro antibacterial activity resembling that of the parent compound. The drug has activity against some Staphylococcus spp., many Streptococcus spp., Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydia trachomatis as well as many less common organisms. Measured using recently proposed guidelines, roxithromycin has in vitro activity against Haemophilus influenzae. In comparison with that of its parent compound, the pharmacokinetic profile of roxithromycin is characterised by high plasma, tissue and body fluid concentrations and a long half-life permitting an extended dosage interval. Roxithromycin has proven clinical efficacy in upper and lower respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urogenital infections and orodental infections, and appears to be as effective as more established treatments including erythromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefaclor. The drug has also shown promise in a variety of more specialised indications including opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and as part of a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen. Roxithromycin is very well tolerated with an overall incidence of adverse events of approximately 4%. Thus, roxithromycin is an attractive therapeutic alternative in its established indications, especially when the option of once-daily administration is considered.
rulide d 50 mg tablets
Roxithromycin (RXM) is a new macrolide antibiotics, with anti-allergic properties, the mechanisms of which action has not been well understood. The effect of RXM-treatment on the induction of interleukin 2 (IL-2) responsiveness by Dermatophagoides farinase (Df)-stimulated lymphocytes was studied in patients with bronchial asthma. RXM alone has almost no effect on lymphocyte activation. Patient's lymphocytes treated with 10 to 400 micrograms/ml doses of RXMs failed to generate Df-induced IL-2 responsiveness in a dose-dependent manner. The target cells for suppressive effect of RXM were antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells rather than responder T cells. PPD-induced IL-2 responsiveness was also suppressed by the treatment, but the Con A-induced response was not. The results suggest that RXM is a slight immunosuppressant to block the induction of IL-2 responsiveness by Df-stimulated patient's lymphocytes, resulting in the interruption of a cytokine cascade of allergic responses.
rulide renal dose
Macrolide antibiotics are mechanism-based inactivators of CYP3A enzymes that exhibit varying degrees of inhibitory potency. Our aim was to predict quantitatively the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of five macrolides from in vitro studies using testosterone as the CYP3A substrate, and to compare the predictions generated from human liver microsomal and recombinant CYP3A4 data.
These observations suggest that several hours are needed to complete the process of cytokine-induced recruitment of eosinophils from the blood to the airways after acute allergen challenge. This may be the optimal time to administer anti-cytokines and dexamethasone to attenuate the subsequent eosinophilic airway inflammation after acute allergen-induced asthmatic attacks.
rulide 300 mg daily
Published data were identified by a MEDLINE search of the English-language literature from 1966 through 2001 using the terms Chlamydia, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. Relevant conference presentations and book chapters were also included.
rulide az 500 mg
In humans, roxithromycin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract producing peak levels (Cmax) within 2 h. The drug is eliminated with a half-life (T1/2) of about 10 h. Roxithromycin is not extensively metabolized. Approximately 53% is excreted in the faeces and about 10% of the dose is eliminated in urine. Although dose-dependency (with doses from 150 to 450 mg) was observed for certain pharmacokinetic parameters, dose-proportionality could only be demonstrated with urine data. During multiple dosing, steady state is usually reached by day four and is dose-dependent. There is a slight but clinically unimportant increase in the T1/2 of the drug with repeated administration. While the rate of absorption is not affected by age, the rate of elimination and renal clearance are decreased in the elderly subjects. No significant differences were observed for Cmax and Tmax between normal and renally impaired subjects. AUCs and elimination T1/2 were greater, and significantly less drug was excreted in renally impaired patients. In patients with liver cirrhosis Cmax, Tmax, and AUCs are not affected. The bioavailability of the drug is not affected to a clinically important extent when it is given either with milk or food. Less than 0.05% of a single 300 mg dose is excreted in the breast milk of lactating women. After oral dosing a very high concentration of roxithromycin is achieved in pulmonary, prostatic, and tonsillar tissues. However, roxithromycin was not detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of subjects with non-inflamed meninges. It is concluded that 150 mg roxithromycin twice daily or 300 mg once a day should provide plasma levels above the minimum inhibitory concentrations required for antibacterial activity.