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Rulide (Roxythromycin)
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Rulide

Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:
Biaxsig, Remora, Roxithromycin, Roxitromicina, Rulid

Similar Products:
Dificid, Zmax, Biaxin XL, Zithromax

 

Also known as:  Roxythromycin.

Description

Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.

Dosage

Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Rulide are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

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To investigate the Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection and drug resistance in children with respiratory tract infection and to provide a rational basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MP infection.

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The effects of roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on neutrophil activities were investigated in six seriously handicapped patients with severe mental retardation. Neutrophil activities were evaluated by flow cytometry using a heparinized blood analysis method. All six patients showed decreased levels of neutrophil phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and CD11b expression. Treatment with roxithromycin in vitro selectively restored the decreased phagocytic and bactericidal activities of neutrophils in these patients. There was no significant restorative effect with cefaclor, ofloxacin, or aztreonam. These results suggest the need to consider therapeutic effects of antibiotics on neutrophil functions in patients at increased risk for bacterial infections due to decreased neutrophil activities.

is rulide related to penicillin

The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin, roxithromycin and spiramycin were examined in parallel for in vivo activity against Toxoplasma gondii. Azithromycin was considerably more active in protecting mice against death due to acute toxoplasmosis even when the other two antibiotics were used at twice its dose. The higher activity of azithromycin prompted a further examination of its activity against five different strains of Toxoplasma gondii, including two isolated from patients with AIDS. Although variable degrees of protection against death were noted, treatment with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days was sufficient to promote survival of 100% of mice infected with inocula as high as 1 x 10(5) tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. 90% of mice inoculated with 1 x 10(5) tachyzoites of strain MO, isolated from an AIDS patient, and treated orally with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days survived the infection whereas only 40% of mice infected with the same inoculum of the SOU strain, also isolated from an AIDS patient, survived. Tissue concentrations of azithromycin were examined in treated infected and non-infected mice. In both groups of mice azithromycin attained high concentrations in liver, spleen and heart, which exceeded concurrent serum levels by 25- to 200-fold. The concentrations in the brain were almost tenfold higher than the concentrations in serum after treatment with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days. Moreover, the concentrations in brains of infected mice were approximately two-fold higher than in brains of non-infected mice.

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This was a pilot study of the use of a clinical pharmacist as a therapeutics adviser (academic detailer) to modify antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners.

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Roxithromycin is a derivative of the macrolide antibacterial erythromycin with in vitro antibacterial activity resembling that of the parent compound. The drug has activity against some Staphylococcus spp., many Streptococcus spp., Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydia trachomatis as well as many less common organisms. Measured using recently proposed guidelines, roxithromycin has in vitro activity against Haemophilus influenzae. In comparison with that of its parent compound, the pharmacokinetic profile of roxithromycin is characterised by high plasma, tissue and body fluid concentrations and a long half-life permitting an extended dosage interval. Roxithromycin has proven clinical efficacy in upper and lower respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urogenital infections and orodental infections, and appears to be as effective as more established treatments including erythromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefaclor. The drug has also shown promise in a variety of more specialised indications including opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and as part of a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen. Roxithromycin is very well tolerated with an overall incidence of adverse events of approximately 4%. Thus, roxithromycin is an attractive therapeutic alternative in its established indications, especially when the option of once-daily administration is considered.

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Roxithromycin (RXM) is a new macrolide antibiotics, with anti-allergic properties, the mechanisms of which action has not been well understood. The effect of RXM-treatment on the induction of interleukin 2 (IL-2) responsiveness by Dermatophagoides farinase (Df)-stimulated lymphocytes was studied in patients with bronchial asthma. RXM alone has almost no effect on lymphocyte activation. Patient's lymphocytes treated with 10 to 400 micrograms/ml doses of RXMs failed to generate Df-induced IL-2 responsiveness in a dose-dependent manner. The target cells for suppressive effect of RXM were antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells rather than responder T cells. PPD-induced IL-2 responsiveness was also suppressed by the treatment, but the Con A-induced response was not. The results suggest that RXM is a slight immunosuppressant to block the induction of IL-2 responsiveness by Df-stimulated patient's lymphocytes, resulting in the interruption of a cytokine cascade of allergic responses.

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Macrolide antibiotics are mechanism-based inactivators of CYP3A enzymes that exhibit varying degrees of inhibitory potency. Our aim was to predict quantitatively the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of five macrolides from in vitro studies using testosterone as the CYP3A substrate, and to compare the predictions generated from human liver microsomal and recombinant CYP3A4 data.

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These observations suggest that several hours are needed to complete the process of cytokine-induced recruitment of eosinophils from the blood to the airways after acute allergen challenge. This may be the optimal time to administer anti-cytokines and dexamethasone to attenuate the subsequent eosinophilic airway inflammation after acute allergen-induced asthmatic attacks.

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Published data were identified by a MEDLINE search of the English-language literature from 1966 through 2001 using the terms Chlamydia, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. Relevant conference presentations and book chapters were also included.

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In humans, roxithromycin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract producing peak levels (Cmax) within 2 h. The drug is eliminated with a half-life (T1/2) of about 10 h. Roxithromycin is not extensively metabolized. Approximately 53% is excreted in the faeces and about 10% of the dose is eliminated in urine. Although dose-dependency (with doses from 150 to 450 mg) was observed for certain pharmacokinetic parameters, dose-proportionality could only be demonstrated with urine data. During multiple dosing, steady state is usually reached by day four and is dose-dependent. There is a slight but clinically unimportant increase in the T1/2 of the drug with repeated administration. While the rate of absorption is not affected by age, the rate of elimination and renal clearance are decreased in the elderly subjects. No significant differences were observed for Cmax and Tmax between normal and renally impaired subjects. AUCs and elimination T1/2 were greater, and significantly less drug was excreted in renally impaired patients. In patients with liver cirrhosis Cmax, Tmax, and AUCs are not affected. The bioavailability of the drug is not affected to a clinically important extent when it is given either with milk or food. Less than 0.05% of a single 300 mg dose is excreted in the breast milk of lactating women. After oral dosing a very high concentration of roxithromycin is achieved in pulmonary, prostatic, and tonsillar tissues. However, roxithromycin was not detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of subjects with non-inflamed meninges. It is concluded that 150 mg roxithromycin twice daily or 300 mg once a day should provide plasma levels above the minimum inhibitory concentrations required for antibacterial activity.

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rulide tablet uses 2017-01-20

HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and HMR 3004 (RU 64004), two ketolides, had MICs at which 50% of the strains are inhibited (MIC50s) of 0.06 to 0.125 microg/ml and MIC90s of 16.0 microg/ml against 352 anaerobes. MIC50s and MIC90s of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were 0.5 to 2.0 microg/ml and 32.0 to >64.0 Clamoxyl 500 Mg Amoxicillin microg/ml, respectively. HMR 3647 and HMR 3004 were more active against non-Bacteroides fragilis-group anaerobes (other than Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium varium, and Clostridium difficile).

rulide tablets 2016-07-16

Sensitivities of peptostreptococci, streptococci, Actinomyces, bacteroid, and fusobacterial strains pathogenic for the periodontium to wide-spectrum penicillines, cephalosporines, lincomycin, macrolides, metronidasole, and nitasole are compared. New macrolide antibiotics rulide. Macropene, gramicidin C, levomycetin, and rifampicin are highly effective. Some narrow-spectrum drugs, e.g. augmentin Cefuroxime 500 Mg Half Life , cephalexin, and vancomycin (towards actinomycetes) were highly effective, too.

rulide drug 2015-12-11

Roxithromycin (RXM), active against prokaryotes, has beneficial side effects such as anti-cancer activities on mammalian cells, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. We found that RXM inhibited the cellular differentiation of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Hence, we screened the targets of RXM by the T7 phage display method with fungal genomic DNA, and identified MoCDC27 (M. oryzae Cell Division Cycle 27) as a candidate. We generated mocdc27 knockdown mutants that the appressoria formation was less affected by RXM. Levoflox Dosing A complemented mutant restored sensitivity against RXM to the level of the wild type. These results suggest that MoCDC27 was involved in the inhibition of appressorium formation by RXM, and that the complex of RXM-MoCDC27 affected another molecule involved in appressorium formation. The T7 phage display method with fungal genomic DNA can be a useful tool in the quest for drug target.

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Macrolides are frequently used in veterinary medicine as therapeutic and preventive agents for various diseases. It is difficult to determine Erythromycin Topical Gel 2 Reviews macrolides simultaneously with conventional methods due to their similar structures. A simultaneous analysis for erythromycin, roxithromycin, tiamulin and tylosin with LC/MS has been developed. Separation was performed on C18 reversed phase column. Mobile phase was gradiently flowed with 10 mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The mass spectrometer was run in the positive mode and selective ion monitoring mode. The molecular ions were [M+H]+ form at m/z 837.5 for erythromycin, at m/z 859.5 for roxithromycin, at m/z 494.2 for tiamulin and at m/z 916.7 for tylosin. Limits of detection were in the range from 0.001 to 0.01 microg/g lower than their MRLs.

rulide with alcohol 2016-08-14

A review of consumption and excretion rates of 17 pharmaceuticals, two musk fragrances and two hormones by the Spanish population in 2003 was performed. For that purpose, three different models were used: (i) extrapolation of the per capita use in Europe to the number of inhabitants of Spain for musk fragrances; (ii) annual prescription items multiplied by the average daily dose for pharmaceuticals and; (iii) excretion rates of different groups of population for hormones. This information enabled the prediction of the expected concentrations (PEC) entering sewage treatment plants (STPs), which were subsequently compared with the measured environmental concentrations (MEC) in raw sewage. Annual drugs consumption in Spain ranges from few kilograms (Oxazepam and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) to several Amoxicilina 100 Mg Y Embarazo hundred of tons (Ibuprofen). The quantities of musks used accounts for 110-450 kg d(-1) and the total amount of hormones excreted daily reaches almost 1 kg d(-1). 12 out of 21 selected substances were predicted to be present in raw sewage influent at concentrations greater than 100 ng l(-1) and these predicted concentrations fitted with the measured values for half of them (Carbamazepine, Diazepam, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Diclofenac, Sulfamethoxazole, Roxithromycin, Erythromycin and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol).

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High MICs were detected against most of the bacteria tested except for H influenzae Kesium 50 Mg Katze and M catarrhalis. The MIC90 for viridans streptococci, S pneumoniae, S pyogenes, Enterococcus spp, S aureus (both methicillin-sensitive and -resistant), coagulase-negative staphylococci (both methicillin-sensitive and -resistant), Coryne-bacterium spp, and B fragilis were all at least 128 micrograms/ml. Wide ranges of MICs were demonstrated.

rulide medication dosage 2016-02-04

MICs ranged for all the drugs, except telithromycin, from < or = 0.06 to > or = 256 mg/L, with 15% to 30% resistant S. pyogenes for all drugs tested except clindamycin (8%) and telithromycin (5.4%) and 10% to 40% resistant S. pneumoniae for all drugs tested except telithromycin (0.3%). In both S. pyogenes Sumycin Capsules and S. pneumoniae, erythromycin resistance related to a mef gene meant that telithromycin MICs were definitely higher than in erythromycin-susceptible isolates, although telithromycin susceptibility was preserved in all cases. In S. pyogenes, the activity of both 16-membered macrolides and telithromycin against the iMLS(B) strains proved to be dependent on the erm gene involved, being greater against isolates with erm(A).

rulide 150 mg price 2015-09-01

RP 59,500 (Quinupristin-Dalfopristin) is the first semisynthetic injectable streptogramin antimicrobial agent, which is a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin in a 30:70 ratio. The components of RP 59,500 act synergically to provide bactericidal activity through action at different sites on bacterial ribosomes. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of RP 59,500 was compared with those of four macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin). Susceptibility testing was carried out by microdilution method on 303 strains of 10 species, especially antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive cocci. RP 59,500 was active against a wide range of Gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococci and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The MICs90 of RP 59,500 against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis were both 0.25 microgram/ml, although those of four macrolides were higher than 32 micrograms/ml. The MICs90 of RP 59,500 against penicillin-sensitive, -intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were all 0.5 microgram/ml, although those of four macrolides against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae were higher than 32 micrograms/ml. RP 59,500 also exhibited equivalent activities to the four macrolides against strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcus agalactiae and Moraxella catarrhalis. RP 59,500 exhibited the highest activities against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus avium strains which are intrinsically resistant to most antimicrobial agents. No cross-resistance was observed between RP 59,500 and the four macrolides, which will merit attention in future clinical trials of the agent. The effect of human serum on the MIC of RP 59,500 was studied with strains of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. faecalis. The presence of 20% (V/V) serum had little or no effect on the MIC, although 50% (V/V) serum increased MICs by 4-8 folds. Laboratory-induced resistance to RP 59,500 occurred in a stepwise fashion in broth cultures of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. facalis strains and the induction rate was slow and no more than four fold increases were observed. Population analysis was performed on RP 59,500 and the reference macrolides against S. aureus ATCC 25,923 strain. Although low frequencies (less than 0.01%) of resistant sub-population were detected with EM, CAM, AZM and RXM, no RP 59 Roxithromycin 150 Mg Side Effects ,500-resistant sub-population was detected in this study.

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Human saliva quantitative monitoring of roxithromycin (ROX) at picomolar-level by flow injection (FI) chemiluminescence (CL) analysis is described for the first time, to our knowledge. Monitoring was based on the CL intensity from luminol-BSA reaction, which can be quenched in the presence of ROX, with the decreasing CL intensity linearly proportional to the logarithm of the ROX concentration, ranging from 0.6 to 1000 pmol·L(-1). The detection limit of the proposed method for the determination of ROX was as low as 0.2 pmol·L(-1) (3σ), and the relative standard deviations were less than 4.0% (n = 7). A complete analytical process, including sampling and washing for ROX determination Para Que Sirve El Elequine De 750 Mg , conducted at a flow rate of 2.0 mL·min(-1), was performed completely within 30 s, yielding a sample efficiency of 120 h(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of ROX in human saliva and serum samples with recoveries from 90.9% to 110.1%. The continuous monitoring of ROX in human saliva after oral intake showed that the total elimination ratio was 87.1% during 24 h, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were 0.97 ± 0.18 h(-1) for the absorption rate constant K(a), 0.082 ± 0.010 h(-1) for the elimination rate constant K(e), and 8.56 ± 1.11 h for the elimination half-life time t(1/2). It was also found that ROX in human saliva and urine simultaneously reached the maximum at 2 h with the concentration correlate ratio of 0.97.

rulide antibiotic 2016-08-08

A specific, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of azithromycin in human plasma. After deproteinizing the plasma sample with methanol, azithromycin and internal standard (IS: roxithromycin) were separated using a mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile : ammonium acetate buffer (50 mM, containing 0.05% acetic acid)=85:15 on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm ID, dp 1.9 μm). Detection was performed with a tandem mass spectrometer by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) through electrospray ionization. Target ions were monitored at [M+H]+ m/z 749.5→591.5 and 837.7→679.5 in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode for azithromycin and IS respectively. Linearity was established for the range of concentrations 2-800 ng/mL with a coefficient of correlation (r) of 0.9996. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was identifiable and reproducible at 2.0 ng/mL. Both intra- and inter-batch standard deviations were less than 15%. The validated method was successfully applied to study the comparative bioavailability of azithromycin for suspension in test vs. reference in healthy Chinese volunteers through the statistical comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters obtained with the two formulations.

rulide dose 2015-06-22

Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Its tropism for the uterus is a potential source of obstetric complications.

rulide penicillin 2016-04-12

The discovery of roxithromycin is the result of a rational and scientific process, based on the fact that at least one reason for erythromycin A's resorption variability after oral administration was its instability in the gastric juice. This instability is due to the reactivity of the ketone in position 9 in acidic medium and one chemical approach was to mask it by an oxime function. Both stereoisomers of this oxime were isolated. Direct O-alkylation of this oxime allowed access to various ether oxime derivatives and of the latter the E stereoisomers were more interesting than the Z ones. The choice of the nature of the oxime substitution was made according to the lipophilic or hydrophilic character of the aliphatic ether chain and these alterations were mainly carried out by introducing heteroatoms into this chain. These different derivatives were classified in 5 groups according to the chemical nature of the chain: Aliphatic, aromatic and nitrogen-, oxygen- and sulfur-containing chains. Two classes, those containing a nitrogen or an oxygen in the ether side chains, showed differential in vitro/in vivo antibiotic activities, with improved bioavailability. Some preliminary pharmacokinetic data confirmed this improvement and led to the selection of five candidates, from which roxithromycin emerged as the best compound.